Water quality

Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water.  It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which compliance can be assessed. The most common standards used to assess water quality relate to health of ecosystems, safety of human contact and drinking water.

Standards

Water quality

Urban runoff discharging to coastal waters

In the setting of standards, agencies make political and technical/scientific decisions about how the water will be used. In the case of natural water bodies, they also make some reasonable estimate of pristine conditions. Different uses raise different concerns and therefore different standards are considered. Natural water bodies will vary in response to environmental conditions. Environmental scientists work to understand how these systems function which in turn helps to identify the sources and fates of contaminants. Environmental lawyers and policy makers work to define legislation that ensure that water is maintained at an appropriate quality for its identified use.
The vast majority of surface water on the planet is neither potable nor toxic. This remains true even if sea water in the oceans (which is too salty to drink) is not counted. Another general perception of water quality is that of a simple property that tells whether water is polluted or not. In fact, water quality is a very complex subject, in part because water is a complex medium intrinsically tied to the ecology of the Earth. Industrial and commercial activities (e.g. manufacturing, mining, construction, transportation) are a major cause of water pollution as are runoff from agricultural areas, urban stormwater runoff and discharge of treated and untreated sewage (especially in developing countries).

Human consumption

Water quality 3

Satirical cartoon by William Heath, showing a woman observing monsters in a drop of London water (at the time of the Commission on the London Water Supply report, 1828)

Contaminants that may be in untreated water include microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria; inorganic contaminants such as salts and metals; organic chemical contaminants from industrial processes and petroleum use; pesticides and herbicides; and radioactive contaminants. Water quality depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human uses such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse (which may lower the level of the water).
In the United States, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) limits the amounts of certain contaminants in tap water provided by public water systems. The Safe Drinking Water Act authorizes EPA to issue two types of standards: primary standards regulate substances that potentially affect human health, and secondary standards prescribe aesthetic qualities, those that affect taste, odor, or appearance. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations establish limits for contaminants in bottled water that must provide the same protection for public health. Drinking water, including bottled water, may reasonably be expected to contain at least small amounts of some contaminants. The presence of these contaminants does not necessarily indicate that the water poses a health risk.
Some people use water purification technology to remove contaminants from the municipal water supply they get in their homes, or from local pumps or bodies of water. Water drawn directly from a stream, lake, or aquifer and has no treatment will be of uncertain quality.

Sampling and Measurement

The complexity of water quality as a subject is reflected in the many types of measurements of water quality indicators. The most accurate measurements of water quality are made on-site, because water exists in equilibrium with its surroundings. Measurements commonly made on-site and in direct contact with the water source in question include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, oxygen reduction potential (ORP), turbidity, and Secchi disk depth.

Source and  References http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drinking_water_pollution

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